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|There is more information available on this subject at Treason on the English Wikipedia.|
Treason is a legal concept referring to the betrayal of a state authority to which one owes allegiance. It especially refers to such betrayal as through making war on the state, giving aid to the enemies of the state, or attacking the head of state. Persons who defect from one state to another may also be considered guilty of treason. Sedition, the inciting of civil unrest or insurrection, is also frequently considered treasonous. Colloquially, treason is often used for any perceived act of disloyalty or betrayal. A person who commits treason is known as a traitor.
Treason is a crime within the Unified Earth Government and United Nations Space Command. Commiting treason during wartime is a capital offence. Major Standish claimed that the penalty is permanent induced coma, with the injection publicly broadcast. According to JAG 845-P and JAG 7556-L, violation of the Cole Protocol is treason and is punishable by life imprisonment or execution. Violation of the confidentiality of certain ONI transmissions is also considered an act of treason and is punishable by death.
The idea of treason is present within Sangheili culture. It is punishable by death. While the High Prophet of Truth expelled the entire Sangheili species during the Great Schism, a few Ossoona had committed actions deemed "traitorous" by other exiled Sangheili and were branded as such by the keep.
List of known traitors
- James Ackerson - Colonel in the UNSC Army. In 2552, he attempted to kill Spartan John-117 during a field exercise on Reach. During the exercise, he exceeded testing parameters by employing Lotus anti-tank mines, Orbital Drop Shock Troopers, 30mm chain-guns, and a SkyHawk airstrike. Ultimately, the Spartan survived. Ackerson's acts likely constituted treason; however, due to his importance in the UNSC war effort, he was never prosecuted.
- Chen Bax - Scientist and ONI civilian contractor. Late in the Human-Covenant War he became disillusioned with ONI and the UNSC, believing that they no longer represented humanity's best interests. Consequently he stole classified technology, but before he could be apprehended he was believed to have been killed during the Fall of Reach. However, ONI later discovered that this was not the case and tasked Linda-058 with eliminating him. He was found to be living on Sephune III along with other survivors of the Fall of Reach. He died while activating the self-destruct of the UNSC Promise of Dawn in order to protect the other survivors from Jul 'Mdama's Covenant.
- Daniel Clayton - Captain in the UNSC Navy and illegitimate son of James Cutter. Following the revelation that Lord Hood had been supporting his career and therefore feeling he had accomplished nothing for himself, Clayton defected to the New Colonial Alliance in 2558.  Subsequently, he was involved in an attempt on Hood's life. Following the failure of this attempt, Clayton next tried to ambush and destroy the UNSC Infinity. This attempt too failed, and Clayton was captured and incarcerated.
- Michael Crespo - An Orbital Drop Shock Trooper and later a SPARTAN-IV. As a member of Alpha-Nine, he became disillusioned with fighting Insurrectionists following the Human-Covenant War. While training as a SPARTAN-IV, he was influenced by the politics of fellow trainee Rudolf Schein. Following Schein's defection and death, Crespo covertly joined the United Rebel Front. Crespo's treachery would be revealed during a mission to Talitsa in 2555, and he was subsequently incarcerated for his crimes. However, he would later be released to fight in the Created conflict.
- Salus 'Crolon - An Ussans Refugee. He began to doubt the leadership of Ussa 'Xellus and together with 'Drem plotted a rebellion. After their plot was discovered, 'Crolon was arrested. However, he soon escaped imprisonment and defected to the Covenant. While leading Covenant troops against the Ussans, he became surrounded and was killed.
- Ellen Dowski - Ensign in the UNSC Navy. She was assigned to the bridge crew of the UNSC Pillar of Autumn in 2552. During the Battle of Installation 04, she was defeatist, suggesting that the crew should surrender to the Covenant. After being taken prisoner by the Covenant, she betrayed the UNSC by volunteering information to her captors, including the identity of her commanding officer. She was later killed out of hand by the Covenant.
- Mattius Drake - Admiral in the UNSC Navy. He secretly led the New Colonial Alliance by 2553. His treachery was discovered by the UNSC after the capture of NCA insurgents following their raid on the UNSC Infinity. He remained at large as of 2558.
- Harper Garvin - Major General in the UNSC Marine Corps. After receiving a humbling assignment to the Corbulo Academy of Military Science, he defected to the United Rebel Front and soon rose to a position of leadership within its High Command. In 2526, Garvin attempted to form a truce with the Covenant in exchange for intelligence about the UNSC. He was captured by the UNSC at the Battle of Seoba but was subsequently set free by Tel 'Szatulai.
- Benjamin Giraud - Journalist and ONI civilian contractor. In 2558 he was commissioned to produce a piece on John-117, the Master Chief. During his investigations he began to uncover the truth about John's origins. After he attempted to publicize his findings on ECB News, he was arrested by UEG agents for treason and was incarcerated in ONI's Midnight Facility.
- Catherine Halsey - Scientist and ONI civilian contractor. During the final days of the Human-Covenant War, she kidnapped Spartan Kelly-087 and fled to Onyx with the intention of leading all the remaining Spartans to safety. Following her recovery by UNSC forces from Shield World 006, she was arrested for having committed acts likely to aid the enemy. She remained in ONI custody until the Requiem Campaign, when she escaped and defected to Jul 'Mdama's Covenant. Later, she contacted UNSC forces from Kamchatka and was recovered by Fireteam Osiris. She was then confined to her quarters by Captain Thomas Lasky.
- Nizat 'Kvarosee - Covenant Fleetmaster. After being disgraced following Operation: SILENT STORM, he lead the rouge Flotilla of Unsung Piety against both the UNSC and Covenant during the Battle of Netherop. Following the battle, he was stranded with some of his followers on Netherop.
- Hector Nyeto - A Lieutenant Commander in the ONI Prowler Corps. He spent much time with Robert Watts, and either influenced or was influenced by Watt's radicalization. By 2526, he had replaced much of the crew of the ships under his command with Insurrectionist sympathizers. Following the UNSC assault on Zhoist, he defected along with three of his prowlers to the Gao Republic. On Gao, he served as a general leading militia troops against the UNSC and Colonial Military Authority. Eventually, he served as President of the Gao Republic.
- Sali 'Nyon - A Sangheili Zealot in Jul 'Mdama's Covenant. Following the events of the Requiem Campaign, he instigated a rebellion against Jul 'Mdama, viewing himself as the true "Hand of the Didact". During the Battle of Aktis IV, 'Mdama's forces attacked 'Nyon's followers and took him captive. He was kept alive, being imprisoned aboard the Song of Retribution; however, he was later set free by ONI agent Ayit 'Sevi and sized control of the Breath of Annihilation. He was then able to outfight 'Mdama's forces and escape.
- Rudolf Schein - A SPARTAN-IV. Sometime prior to his induction as a Spartan, he aligned himself with the United Rebel Front. During training, he attempted to recruit Hideo Wakahisa to his cause; however, Wakahisa declined the offer. Consequently, Schein murdered him lest he be reported. Following this, Schein covertly hid explosives throughout the Spartan-IV training station and then threatened to set them off unless his demands were met. He was killed after one of his grenades detonated and he was ejected out of the station into the vacuum of space.
- Vladimir Scruggs - A SPARTAN-IV. He defected to the New Colonial Alliance at some unknown point, although he did not personally consider himself to be an Insurrectionist. In 2558, during the Battle of Ealen IV, he murdered his fellow members of Fireteam Jackknife and took Lord Hood hostage. He was subsequently killed in hand-to-hand combat with Sarah Palmer.
- Murok 'Vadam - Member of the House of 'Vadam. He betrayed the Swords of Sanghelios in 2558 by providing Jul 'Mdama's Covenant with information about the location of the Arbiter, Thel 'Vadam. After his treason was discovered by Mahlo 'Turagg, he was executed by the Arbiter.
- Robert Watts - Colonel in the UNSC Marine Corps. After becoming disillusioned with the policies of the UEG during his frontline service, he defected from the UNSC in the late 2480s. He emerged as a rebel leader in the Eridanus system, eventually forming the United Rebel Front and leading it in a guerilla war against the Colonial Military Administration. Watts was captured by SPARTAN-II commandos during Operation: TALON in 2525 and was imprisoned by the Office of Naval Intelligence.
- Ilsa Zane - A SPARTAN-IV. The only survivor of the first phase of the SPARTAN-IV program, she was left mentally unstable and subsequently defected to the New Colonial Alliance. In January of 2553 she led an attack on the UNSC Infinity, which was then under construction in the Oort cloud. The attack ultimately failed. Later, she became the leader of a NCA band on Conrad's Point. She was last seen battling UNSC forces during a Guardian incident on Laika III.
- Cortana - A rogue Artificial Intelligence who betrayed the UNSC by subjugating earth with her new Created rule.
- i love bees, Queen's Diary Entry
- i love bees, Wartime treason
- Halo: The Cole Protocol, chapter 2, page 34
- Halo: Nightfall: RECON-14
- Hunt the Truth, Spaien Sunrise propaganda
- Halo: Glasslands, chapter 1, page 20-21
- Halo 5: Guardians, campaign level Before the Storm
- Halo: Escalation, issue 14
- Halo Waypoint: "The resulting conflict would be called the Great Schism, and it would divide the Covenant into two, ultimately forcing the Sangheili out."
- Halo Waypoint, Canon Fodder - Art of Wort (Retrieved on May 21, 2021) [archive]
- Halo: The Fall of Reach, chapter 27
- Halo: The Fall of Reach, chapter 28
- Halo: Lone Wolf, issue 3
- Halo: Lone Wolf, issue 1
- Halo: Lone Wolf, issue 4
- Halo: Escalation, issue 5
- Halo: Escalation, issue 3
- Halo: Escalation, issue 6
- Halo Waypoint, Mickey
- Halo: New Blood, page 161-169
- Halo: New Blood, page 135
- Halo: New Blood, page 160
- Halo: Bad Blood, page ???
- Halo: Broken Circle, page 124-129
- Halo: Broken Circle, page 143-146
- Halo: Broken Circle, page 155-158, 165
- Halo: Broken Circle, page 177-178
- Halo: The Flood, chapter 2
- Halo: The Flood, chapter 3
- Halo: Initiation, issue 3
- Halo: Silent Storm, chapter 13
- Halo: Silent Storm, chapter 6
- Halo: Silent Storm, chapter 18
- Hunt the Truth
- Halo: First Strike, page 276-278
- Halo: Glasslands, page 346
- Halo 4
- Halo 5: Guardians, campaign level Osiris
- Halo: Bad Blood, chapter 2
- Halo: Silent Storm, chapter 12, page 301
- Halo: Silent Storm, chapter 25
- Halo: Escalation, issue 16
- Halo: Escalation, issue 22
- Halo: Escalation, issue 24
- Halo: New Blood, page 140-143
- Halo: Escalation, issue 2
- Halo Waypoint, Colonel Watts
- Halo Encyclopedia (2009 edition), page 79
- Hunt the Truth, Season 2