From Halopedia, the Halo wiki
North America is a continent on Earth.
In the 1970s, a charasmatic cult was founded and constructed a cave dwelling in the tundra of North America. Their language and this dwelling were studied by Connor Brien some 600 years later where they were described as a "lost tribe".
On October 20th, 2552, the Prophet of Regret and the Fleet of Sacred Consecration arrived at Earth, signaling the start of the Battle for Earth. Regret's fleet was preoccupied with uncovering the portal to the Ark, and thus focused all attention on eastern Africa. Rapidly after the Prophet of Regret's retreat from Africa, the fighting spread across the globe. Some Covenant forces were dispatched to the Yucatan Peninsula, where they began conducting extensive underwater excavations in search of Forerunner artifacts. Spartan-II Blue Team put an end to these excavations.
On November 3rd, Blue Team deployed to Havana, which had been taken over by Covenant forces. Blue Team's primary objective was to retake the Centennial Orbital Elevator, but it was destroyed after the plan changed so that low-yield FENRIS nuclear warheads were used to destroy a CPV-class heavy destroyer.
The Covenant also invaded the city of Cleveland Ohio, looking for an artifact known as the "Key of Osanalan". The Key turned out to be a hoax perpetrated by Colonel James Ackerson, who, while being tortured for information, fabricated the story of the key in order to keep Cleveland from being glassed due to his brother's residence there. While Cleveland suffered catastrophic damage from the urban fighting that resulted, the occupation was ultimately repelled, largely thanks to Ruwan's self-sacrifice, whereby he became a living targeting vector to be taken aboard the Harbinger of Piety. Many refugees left the city for a relief camp set up in Akron.
Upon the Prophet of Truth's retreat from Earth through the Portal at Voi leading to Installation 00, the Covenant forces that remained focused their efforts on North America; Fleet Admiral initiated Operation: MARSH FLASH to eliminate the Covenant presence on Earth. During this effort, surviving Jiralhanae forces attempted to capture and activate Forerunner artifacts unearthed in Arizona. The UNSC successfully thwarted this effort.
Almost five years after the Covenant was beaten, on July 24th, 2557, the Ur-Didact arrived suddenly at Earth aboard the Mantle's Approach. Having recently acquired a Composer, he targeted city of New Phoenix for the composition of its citizens. The entire population of the city, numbering around seven million people, was successfully converted to digital essences, many of which were sent through slipspace to the Composer's Forge to begin the process of creating new Promethean Knights. The Master Chief succeeded in destroying the composer and halting the Didact's attack.
Not long after, Jul 'Mdama's Covenant opened multiple portals from Installation 03. One such portal opened in New Phoenix, thanks to a Forerunner artifact that was being studied there. Both Covenant and Promethean forces poured through the portal, and battle was joined with UNSC Marines. A lone Spartan headhunter, with the help of an ONI research team, was successfully able to close the portal using the Conduit. After hostilities ceased, the city was quarantined. Officially, the story was that the attack was purely Covenant in origin, but six months later, this position was revised. After eight months of quarantine, President Ruth Charet presided over a rebirth ceremony for the city.
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