From Halopedia, the Halo wiki
Similar to their less experienced brethren, Majors constitute a large part of the Covenant's mainstream infantry. They are seen in almost every engagement alongside other types of Covenant forces. Although higher in rank than Minors, they are still subject to the command of a lance leader, typically a Sangheili or Jiralhanae. Majors represent the highest rank within the standard infantry of the Kig-Yar contingent, often assuming leadership positions and specialized roles. Sometimes, a Kig-Yar Major leads a lance of low-ranking Kig-Yar and Unggoy.
Generally, Kig-Yar Majors operate better in small groups or in scouting parties. However, they can play the role of a precision marksman if it is deemed necessary.
Kig-Yar Majors are better armed than their Minor subordinates. Since they are more experience in combat, Majors are given better supplement equipment. They are mostly armed with plasma pistols, plasma rifles, and Needlers.
Majors wield point-defense gauntlets of greater energy output than those used by the Kig-Yar Minors. The energy emitted by a Major's shield is typically shifted into the red spectrum, glowing orange, violet or red and shifting to blue as it takes fire. Majors occasionally sport additional armor as well, such as forearm gauntlets on both arms.
Kig-Yar Majors are known for wielding plasma pistols as their standard weapon of choice, though canonically they have also been known to utilize Needlers. When engaging an enemy, they tend to overcharge their plasma pistols to eliminate enemy SPARTAN's energy shields and release volleys of plasma bolts to quickly eliminate them. When engaged by an enemy, a Major will use its personal arm shield to block enemy fire.
When engaging a Kig-Yar Major from afar, it is best to use a precision weapon such as an M6 pistol, Battle Rifle, or Covenant Carbine and aim at their exposed left hand. From medium range, weapons such as the plasma rifle, the SMG and the Assault Rifle provide good suppressive fire against the Major, as a hit on their body will cause the Kig-Yar to stumble, momentarily exposing it to a melee or headshot. Alternatively, one can eliminate the Kig-Yar's personal arm shield by firing a volley from a plasma rifle or an overcharged shot from a plasma pistol. Once the personal arm shield collapses, the Kig-Yar Major is open to all attacks.
On higher difficulties, it is advisable for players to utilize either a long-range firing technique using a precision weapon or the overcharged plasma bolt.
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