Real World

Sangheili (language)/Silver

From Halopedia, the Halo wiki

Sangheili is a constructed language created for the Halo: The Television Series co-created by linguists David J. Peterson, creator of the Dothraki and Valyrian languages used in Game of Thrones and Chakobsa language in Dune (Parts 1 & 2)[1], and Carl Buck.[2] Both conlangers began jointly developing the Sangheili language nearly three years prior to the series premiere.[3] By early 2022, Carl Buck estimated they had crafted close to 250 Sangheili words, those being base words and not variations of verbs and nouns. Actress Charlie Murphy learned to speak Sangheili for her role as Makee on the show and was noted to have done a phenomenal job capturing the emphasis, pitch and pronunciations of the alien language.[4]

Peterson posts transcripts for the words and their translations on his language wiki, as well as in a series of posts on Archive of Our Own, accessible here. See also David Peterson's records here and his additional informative Tweets archived here.



During the development of Paramount+'s Halo adaptation, 343 Industries consulted with David Peterson and Carl Buck to examine the Elites as language experts, and then create a more robust and complete Sangheili language which reflected their actual physiology.[5] The language they devised for the series borrowed minimally from past Halo material and video games as previous dialogue crafted for Covenant speak was primarily gibberish.[6] For instance the word "domo" for "human" and the negative "eya" come directly from the latter games. The games' famous word "wort" for "go" did not fit phonologically and was altered to "warut'o."


Sangheili, the language featured in the show, is an ergative-absolutive language spoken by the Sangheili warrior race, commonly referred to as Elites, as well as generally inside the Covenant, an alien alliance that worships the Halo Array. The language is a lightly inflectional head-final language with distinctive vowel length and ejectives.

In the tradition of his other constructed languages, Peterson crafted the language by laying the groundwork with a proto-language known as Proto-Sangheili. This ancient Elite language evolved organically, undergoing both phonological and grammatical changes, eventually giving rise to the modern Sangheili language spoken within the Covenant empire.

Sangheili uses Standard American Romanization. Ejective consonants are written with a following apostrophe, and the r is the tap [ɾ]. The language has long vowels, represented by a doubled vowel, and occasionally has geminates, also written doubly. Likely the most challenging aspect of the phonology are the consonants with a velar release. These are written as if they began with a consonant cluster, but they occur at every point of articulation—namely, pkh [pˣ], tkh [tˣ], kkh [kˣ], and qkh [qˣ], and even the fricative (or fricative-ending) consonants skh [sˣ], shkh [ʃˣ], and chkh [tʃˣ]

Basic Sangheili Primer[edit]

Standard Romanization[edit]

Letter IPA English example Notes
a a father
b b bad
ch match
ch' tʃ' Produced by holding your breath at the same time as making the above sound.
chkh tʃˣ Like pronouncing ch, but with the back of one’s tongue contacting the soft palate.
d d die
dz dz kids Pronounced as such even at the beginning of a word.
e e get Always pronounced like the e in get.
g ɡ goat Never pronounced like the g in genius.
gh ɣ fuego (spanish) Pronounced like the French r in rouge (the harsher pronunciation; not trilled).
h h hop
i i machine
j jam
k k sky
k' k' Produced by holding your breath at the same time as making the above sound.
kh x~χ blech! Like German ch in Buch.
kkh Like pronouncing k, but releasing it very slowly with strong frication.
l l love
m m matter
n n never [ɲ] before a palatal consonant, [ɴ] before a uvular consonant.
ng ŋ sing Can occur at the beginning of a word.
o o tote
p p spike
p' p' Produced by holding your breath at the same time as making the above sound.
pkh Like pronouncing p, but with the back of one’s tongue contacting the soft palate.
q q Like a k, but pronounced further back in the throat, with the back of the tongue contacting the uvula.
q' q' Produced by holding your breath at the same time as making the above sound.
qkh Like pronouncing q, but with the back of one’s tongue contacting the soft palate.
r ɾ pero (spanish) Nearly identical to the t or d sound in English matador when pronounced quickly.
s s sad
sh ʃ shack
shkh ʃˣ Like pronouncing sh, but with the back of one’s tongue contacting the soft palate.
skh Like pronouncing s, but with the back of one’s tongue contacting the soft palate.
t t stake
t' t' Produced by holding your breath at the same time as making the above sound.
tkh Like pronouncing t, but with the back of one’s tongue contacting the soft palate.
ts ts cuts
ts' ts' Produced by holding your breath at the same time as making the above sound.
tskh tsˣ Like pronouncing ts, but with the back of one’s tongue contacting the soft palate.
u u ruminate
w ɰ wagon Almost like wet, but with one's lips unrounded.
y j young Never occurs as a vowel.
z z zebra
zh ʒ azure, measure
' ʔ uh-oh


Sangheili consonants
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Stops (p), b, p′

p, b, p′
(t), d, t′

t, d, t′
(k), g, k′

k, g, k′
(q), q′, *ɢ

q, q′

Affricates px

tx, (ts), tsx, dz, ts′

tkh, ts, tskh, dz, ts′
(tʃ, tʃx, dʒ, tʃ′)

ch, chkh, j, ch′


Fricatives s, sx, z

s, skh, z
(ʃ, ʃx, ʒ)

sh, shkh, zh
x~χ, ɣ~ʁ

kh, gh

Approximants l, ɾ

l, r


Nasals m





Sangheili vowels
Front Central Back
High i, iː

I, ii
u, uː

u, uu
Mid (e)


Low a, aː

a, aa
  • Diphthongs: ai (like the y in sky), au (like the ow in how'), ei (like the a in gate)
  • /e/ and /o/ are always short, but the other vowels may be short or long. Long vowels are indicated by doubling the vowel symbol.
  • Proto-Sangheili also had a phonemic /ɢ/, but it merged with /ɣ/.
  • Sequences of ejectives are not allowed, when one occurs, the second ejective is deglottalized.
  • Certain sounds that are found in proper names among the Sangheili, which are not part of Sangheili phonology, are treated as approximations resulting from human attempts at Latinizing these names. Because there are no [f], [θ], or [v] sounds in the language, names like Thel 'Vadamee, Var 'Gatanai, and Fal 'Chavamee are English approximations of T'elo Badami, Baro Gat'anai, and P'alo Chabami, respectively, in Sangheili.[7][8][9]


Most of Sangheili's syllables are open, only three codas are allowed: /n/, /ŋ/ and /s/. /n/ has the allophones [ɲ] before palatals and [ɴ] before uvulars. Syllables may never start with consonant clusters.


Stress falls on the penultimate syllable if it is heavier than the antepenultimate, otherwise it falls on the antepenultimate. Secondary stress is placed on every other syllable radiating outward from the syllable with main stress. The final syllable never attracts stress, regardless of length.

Proposed Sangheili orthography[edit]

The Covenant script that is featured in the show consists of triangular glyphs, visuals directly taken from the Halo franchise, yet remains nonsensical. David J. Peterson and Carl Buck proposed the creation of a writing script for the series, presenting a crafted sample that envisions a cohesive Sangheili writing system to complement the language they developed. Their conceptualization involved acknowledging the unique phonetics of Sangheili and led them to design a script centered around syllables as the foundational unit. Each syllabic glyph would contain a base consonant with the potential for vowel modifications and additional diacritics to indicate coda consonants when necessary.

Grammar and Morphology[edit]


Sangheili generally follows SOV (subject-object-verb) word order akin to Japanese and Latin:

K'uucho o 1 domo 2 ruuk'inatan 3"the warrior 1 attacked 3 the human 2"

In content questions, question words appear in situ (the default or expected position within a sentence):

K'e o gha ts'aachi?"what have you done?"

Subjects of transitive verbs are marked by the postposition "o", while subjects of intransitive verbs and objects of transitive verbs remain unmarked.

K'uucho o domo ruuk'inatan"the warrior attacked the human"
  • K'uucho is followed by o because it's the warrior that caused the attack on the human. Domo, the recipient in the sentence, gets no mark.
K'uucho mejayatan"the warrior is ready"
  • K'uucho is unmarked because there is no direct object affected by the warrior's action of getting prepared.

Nouns are preceded by adjectives, possessors, and relative clauses, while main clauses come after dependent clauses. Creating relative clauses is achieved by positioning their verb before the noun or relative pronoun they modify.

K'aidon k'uucho o domo ruuk'inatan"the kaidon warrior attacked the human"
Domo ruuk'inatan k'uucho"the warrior who attacked the human"
K'uucho o ruuk'inatan domo"the human whom the warrior attacked"


Sangheili has an inclusive / exclusive distinction in its First Person plural pronouns for "we, us" ("Riin" for you and us and "Jaari" for us and not you). The Sangheili language also recognizes both animate and inanimate entities, but the Third Person singular pronoun "Mu" makes no gender distinction between "he" (masculine) and "she" (feminine), acting neutral as "it, itself, they".

Personal pronouns Singular Plural
Inclusive Exclusive
First Person jan riin jaari
Second Person k'e k'iri
Third Person Animate mu muuri
Third Person Inanimate tkha tkhaari

Case Particles / Postpositions[edit]

These case particles are placed after a noun to indicate the role they play in a sentence. The ergative and absolutive are grammatical. The vocative case is used for direct address, while the rest pertain to locative functions. Nouns in Sangheili otherwise do not change form to indicate their grammatical role.[10]

The locative cases of the Sangheili Conlang.
Sangheili locative cases.
Type Particle Use
Absolutive - -
Ablative ga Indicates movement from a source or starting point of an action. This particle expresses the idea of "away (from)" or "of."
Adessive ni Indicates the location or position of an object or a person in relation to another object or place. It expresses the notions of "near, by, at, on, with, or upon."
Allative oni Indicates movement toward a location, destination, or recipient of an action. This particle expresses the ideas of "to, onto, at, for, or of."
Elative ba Indicates a separation or departure from a place or a starting point. This particle expresses the idea of "out of" or "from."
Ergative o Used after a noun to mark it as the subject of a transitive verb (a verb that accepts an object).
Illative zhi Indicates direction or movement toward a location or place. It expresses the idea of "into" or "onto."
Inessive me Indicates being in a certain place or object. It expresses the ideas of "in, inside, within, or along side."
Vocative ghu Used to address or gain someone's attention directly. "Hey, Oh, O ye..."

The locative cases are analogous to the following English prepositions[11]:

Locative Case Example Translation
Ga wele ga from the ship, away from the ship
Ni wele ni by the ship, on the ship
Oni wele oni onto the ship
Ba wele ba out of the ship
Zhi wele zhi into the ship
Me wele me inside the ship, within the ship

In contrast to English, which has dedicated possessive pronouns ("my," "your," "his," "her") and a possessive ('s), Sangheili lacks dedicated possessive cases for nouns, instead using other cases for possession depending on the nature of the possessive relationship.[12]


  • K'uucho oni zhuro - would be “the warrior’s weapon” or better yet "the weapon TO the warrior". This would presumably mean the weapon is one the warrior owns.
  • K'uucho ni zhuro - would also be “the warrior’s weapon” or better yet "the weapon ON the warrior". This would imply that the weapon is one the warrior just picked up.
  • K'uucho oni nejo ga zhuro - "the weapon FROM the father TO the warrior". This would indicate that the warrior has their father's weapon.
  • K'uucho me ik'o - "the warrior's eye(s)" or "the eye(s) IN the warrior". This suggests the warrior still has theirs.
  • K'uucho ba ik'o - "the warrior's eye(s)" or rather "the eye(s) OUT OF the warrior". This suggests the warrior has regrettably lost theirs.

Example dialogue:

K'e oni k'uucho mejayatan, K'aidon.
Your warriors are ready, Kaidon.
K'uucho ghu! Riin oni nejo ba luuka ni. Riin oni khuut'a ba luuka ni. Warut'o! Ikhi ga!
Warriors! On the blood of our fathers. By the blood of our brothers. Go! Now!
Oq'o Ch'awaruut'u oni! K'aidon oni!
For the Great Journey! For the Kaidon!

Verb instrumental prefixes[edit]

Similarly to the Siouan or Uto-Aztecan languages of the North and Middle Americas, Sangheili has instrumental prefixes that can transform verb bases into entirely new verbs.[13] The following 12 prefixes are routinely used to form a range of derivations.

Prefix Origin Usage Example
ba (n)- baan (spine) utilizing the back or rear ban + k'utkho (to fight) → bank'utkho (to defend / resist)
ch'a (n)- ch'ano (head) utilizing the head ch'an + qkhoso (to walk) → ch'anqkhoso (to run)
dzu (m/n)- dzumu (to be sharp) with a weapon, or with a sharp point, dangerously dzu + k'utkho (to fight) → dzuk'utkho (to battle)
ga (i/y)- gadi (lower mandible) with the lower mandible, with uncertainty gai + duje (to molt / shed) → gaiduje (to sully)
gha (y)- ogha (foot) using the foot gha + jaya (to arrive) → ghajaya (to return)
kh (e/y)- akke (hand) general instrumental; also specifically utilizing the hand khe + ch'imo (to collect) → khech'imo (to bring)
juu (n)- juun (upper mandible) with the upper mandible, with certainty juu + khawa (to say) → juukhawa (to claim)
me (kh)- maikhu (tool, device) using a tool or device me + ch'in (to stab) → mech'in (to cut)
mo (s)- mos (mind, brain) using the mind or reasoning mo + duje (to molt / shed) → moduje (to lose track of)
ru (u)- ruq'a (fire) using fire or heat ruu + k'ina (to bite) → ruuk'ina (to attack)
t'i (s)- t'iis (word) verbally; using words t'i + khawa (to say) → t'ikhawa (to chat)
wel (e)- wele (ship, vessel) using a ship, vessel, vehicle, or other means of transport wele + kkhosa (to flee) → welekkhosa (to retreat)
  • Suffixes also play a role in forming additional derivations in verbs. A common suffix, -jo, is utilized for forming agent nouns (e.g. teach-er, visit-ors). Another suffix, -t'u (or -tu), is employed to create nominalizations.
  • Maaro (seek) → maarojo (search team, searchers)
  • Moq'aara (have faith) → moq'aajo (zealots)
  • Ts'aha (be at) → ts'ahat'u (presence)
  • Hai (be able / have ability) → hait'u (strength, might)

Verb Tenses[edit]

Sangheili has 8 tenses, but the meanings of those tenses vary depending on whether the verb is stative or dynamic.[14]

Verb Tenses Dynamic Verbs Stative Verbs Suffix
Bare Imperative

(An action is issued as a command or order)

(A state or condition is provided as a fact or general truth)
None (---)
Reduplicative Imperfect

(An action is ongoing or continuous)

(A state or condition is emphasized)

(a part of a verb is partially repeated)

Inceptive Inceptive

(An action has begun)

(A state or condition is beginning)
Completive Perfect

(An action has concluded)

(A state or condition has ended)
Declarative Present

(An action is occurring)

(A state or condition holds an element of probability)
-(i)jo (or -cho)
Witnessed / Direct Emphatic

(An experienced action is emphasized)

(A past state or condition is referred)
-(i)ji (or -chi)
Overheard / Inferential Uncertain

(An action has an element of uncertainty)

(A state or condition carries a sense of possibility or potentiality)
-(i)jen (or -chen)
Prospective Future

(An action will come in the future)

(A state or condition will occur later)
-(i)jaga (or -chaga)

Other aspects and question forms:

Dynamic Verbs Stative Verbs Suffix
Negation Reverse action Contrary state -eya
Ability Possible action Possible state -’ala
Yes or No Question - - -jahe[15] (or -chahe) and is attached to a reduced set of 4 tenses: Bare, Reduplicative, Inceptive, and Completive.

Example questions:

  • Ghashank'o. Mu sachahe? — The demon. He's sure?
  • K'e sachahe, Hirajo? — Are you certain, Blessed One?
  • Ikhi k'e o ch'anik'ojahe? — Do you see now?
  • Q'a riin ni tkha jayetanjahe? — But it did not make its way back to us?
  • Juukhojo ine ga waawotkhijahe? — This is what the prophets fear?

Copular constructions[edit]

Sangheili generally uses zero-copula constructions, meaning the copular verb "to be" (and its forms: am, is, are) is often dropped from sentences when the meaning is understood from the context.

  • K'uucho haala. — The warrior is strong. ("The warrior strong")
  • Ne bekkhajo riin o maamaro gha. — This creature is what we seek. ("This creature what we seek")
  • Ine ii zap'atu. — This was no victory. ("This not victory")

However, Sangheili does have a locative copula, ts'aha (to be at):

  • Maamaro gha ogha ni ts'aha. — "What we seek is close."
  • Ghaamos riin nis ts'aha? — "Why are we here?"

Question words[edit]

Question words that are commonly used as subordinating conjunctions or relative pronouns include:

Gha what
Ghaazhi because, if, when
Ghaadi where
Ghaasha how
Ghaakhe how much
Ghaamos why, how come
Ghaijo who


Type Adjective Singular Plural Adverb
Proximal (near the speaker) ne - this ine - this niri - these nis - here
Medial (neither near nor far) zo - that uzo - that zuri - those zus - there
Distal (far from the speaker) tkha - it, that (over there) athka - that (over there) tkhaari - those (over there) tkhaas - over there, yonder
Unknown / Indefinite (indicating uncertainty) ba aba baari baas
Negative (indicating absence) ii - no, not ngajo - none, no one ngamaas - nowhere
  • Adverbs can be followed by postpositions, for instance tkhaas oni translates as "that way".

Coordinating conjunctions[edit]

Common coordinating conjunctions include:

Q'a but
Nizhi and (used to coordinate nouns and sentences)
Ze and (used to coordinate adjectives)

Sangheili lines & outtakes by David Peterson[edit]

* Denotes a word's spelling has not been confirmed.
Jan David *ngitkha. My name is David.[4]
Hait'u ga k'utkho! From strength, fight! or Fight with strength! (Used by Sangheili as both a greeting and a farewell.)[4]
Jan o moa ba ngani rotkho *p'onji. I will eat a moa burger. or I will eat moa flesh.[4]
Qkhe p'os. Sugakho. (Oh shit) (Needler)
Yodu Shandi ni Ch'awaruut'u ba pumo jayajaga. Soon the Covenant will begin it's Great Journey.

These outtakes for the first season, from Peterson's audio recordings (linked above at the top), are unused or alternate lines that are also absent in Peterson's own dialogue scripts.
Episode 101
Makee Q'iitu. Et'o zwari. Maasa ghwiri k'e o jan ni changongo oni jayatan. Mercy. Welcome. It's been a long time since you've visited my chambers.
Mercy Yap'o dzuro ba jayatan jan itskhaji. I wish I came under better circumstances.
Mercy Ch'inji, k'utkho ba kkhosa k'entan ch'anoq'o sangheli et'ojo T'elo Badami oni. Taken, from a sangheili swordsman of great nobility named Thel 'Vadamee who chose to flee rather than fight.
Mercy Domo ga q'aha ba kheluuga ch'uitan, mu o juukhojo. Tkha me k'iis me mos ba. He said the artifact awoke to the human's touch as if lit from within.
Mercy Ts'ekhe ni jan o ine mosik'ola. K'unjo o eya. I find this easy to understand. Others might not.
Episode 102
Makee Ne oni k'e o k'utkhitanjahe? Is that why you did not fight? (For this you did not fight?)
Makee P'uuka o jan mositskhajo. That's an intriguing question. (The question intrigues me.)
Makee Ghaazhi Ghashank'o o tkha q'ahiji, gha k'e o p'ayut'u ba ch'anik'otanjahe? When the demon touched it, what exactly did you see?
Makee Q'iitu k'e o jan juuch'iiji, ngenoji. K'e o jan ch'anggonji, Oq'o Ch'awaruut'u oni jan q'onji. Ghaazhi k'e o jan oni ne tskha'iji, jan o riin oni ne waaka waqkhijaga. Jan o oq'ogakha maaroji, nizhi jan o qkhaamo oni Sangheli me tkha bit'ajaga. Tkha o ch'anggagomo oni riin gwijaga. Mercy, you took me in, saved me. You tutored me, and taught me of the Great Journey. For what you have done for me, allow me to deliver this gift to us all. I will find the keystone. And I will bring it to the sacred shrine on Sanghelios and it will lead us to the ring
Mercy Eya, T'elo Badami. Ghaazhi k'e ni haanga oni k'e o ghabaat'u ch'imitan, buut'u nizhi ruuq'ontu ba k'e ni ch'anopkhuutu jayajaga. No, Thel 'Vadamee. For the shame you have brought to your kind, your redemption will come through penance and reeducation.
Mercy Eya, T'elo Badami. Jaari oni ghabaat'u ni, buut'u ze ruuq'ontu ba ch'anopkhuutu jayajaga. No, Thel 'Vadamee. For our shame, your redemption will come through penance and reeducation.
Thel Hirajo me haat'u o mu o riin ni ch'anqkhoso moshkhaachen tkhazhi tkha o ghashank'o oni me mos ba nizhi moshkhaachahe? If the abilities of the Blessed One mean she is meant to be with us, do they not mean the same for the demon?
Thel Juukhojo Q'iitu. K'aidon me mos ba, ghuuri maasa jan o domo k'uutan. Ghashank'o jan o chkha'ala nizhi matkhala, tkhazhi jan o modujitan gha khech'imala. Tkhet'a ga, jan o ch'anopkhola jan oni t'iswaqkho. Prophet Mercy. As a kaidon, I have fought with the humans many times. I can hunt and kill the demon, and retrieve what I have lost. Please, allow me to redeem myself.
Thel Asho, ts'age oni tkha ruumaachi. K'e ba juukhot'u me mos ba. It glowed blue and bright. Just as you prophesy.
Truth Saatu ba eya. K'e ch'anggaaya, chkhuung-- Absolutely not. You're far too valuable to--
Episode 103
Makee Tkha ba niqkhagha waachaga, nizhija oq'ogakha ts'ughejaga. Jan satkha. It will reveal its secrets even in the absence of the keystone. I'm sure of it.
Makee Nizhi muuri? And them?
Makee Daagheya, Q'iitu. Riin o t'onguutan zhaan o k'e mojaya. Tkha zhaan me baazhi ni chkhan q'unqa jan o qkhit'uji--jan me muuri oni maaziit'u mosa. No need to worry, Mercy. You remember the day we met. I've tried to forget everything that came before that day--everything except my hatred for them.
Makee Q'iitu. Riin o t'onguutan zhaan o jan nizhi mojaya. Domo o jan zhi ruutskhaatan gha o jan mojaya. Jan me muuri oni maaziit'u o jan nizhi mojaya pkha. Mercy. I also remember the day we met. I remember what the humans did to me, and I remember my hatred for them.
Mercy Jaari o maarolatan ine yap'o naachi pkha. Riin o t'onguutan zhaan oni tkha o jan mobit'a. Tkhazhi k'e ma uuri naachi. This is the best we could find. It reminds me of the day we met. Of course, you were much smaller then.
Mercy Jan o k'e ba hait'u t'iiweya. I have no doubts in your abilities.
Mercy Muuri moq'aara. Q'a jan daagha. Ne wiiwaruut'u o k'e ni tkhet’a oni k'e wiibit'ajaga. They have faith. But I do worry. This journey will bring you in contact with your kind.
Sangheili Uzo me baan ni tkha ts'aha. Zus me. It's behind that. In there.
Sangheili Oq'ogakha ogha ni ts'aha. The relic is close.
Sangheili Nis tskha'ijahe? Near here?
Sangheili Ine riin o maamaro gha. This is what we seek.
Episode 104
Sangheili Yojo oni ikhi. Switching to (Needler).
Sangheili Qkhe p'os, Jan ni khobuugha! Oh shit, my gun!
Episode 105
Makee Gakha me pkhot'a zhi nasa warut'o o riin enjo. Baatkhi. We must go further into the rockface. Start digging.
Makee Tkha nis ts'aheya jan o iik'uji. Riin me qkhan o tkha gaibit'ajo. Q'a ruut'iyaji, nguuka nis huunjo. Jaja atkha o tkha me la'ajo oni gwijaga. I am aware it's not here. Our enemies possess it now. But it was active, radiating energy here. That may be enough to lead us to it's twin.
Makee Atkha tskha'a pkha. See that you do.
Makee Eya. Ine k'unjo. K'unjo ba nguuka. K'unjo ba oq'ogakha. Ghaadi ni tkha ts'aha tkha o riin oni khaujo. Siin shak'o tkha o loloshkho! No. This is something different. A different energy. The other keystone. It's telling us were it is. It's showing us the fastest route!
Makee Eya. Ine k'unjo. Nguuka o... K'unjo ba oq'ogakha. Tkha o riin t'isiizit'a! No. This is something different. The energy... The other keystone. It's calling out to us!
Makee K'ung oq'ogakha ba riin ngani. Juunduje pkha. We need both keystones. Make it look good.
Makee Jaari o khuuta ba nguuka huunjo. We share the same energy.
Makee Tkhazhi oq'ogakha k'ung ni riin ba, riin o muuri ruubaaji hai. And with both keystones, we can destroy them.
Guard Jan ba ine q'unqa, Hirajo, q'a ghaazhi kheluuga nis ts'aheya-- Forgive me, Blessed One, but if the artifact is no longer here--
Guard K'e ba t'iis ga. Ghaazhi jaari o shak'o mekhechkhaatan jan o k'e ghap'uuchaga, Hirajo. As you wish. I will send for you when we've cleared the way, Blessed One.
Episode 109
Makee Mu eya Ghashank'o. Mu q'a domo, k'unjo ba chkhan me mos ba. Yodu k'e o muuri ga ch'ano ba chkhan bit'aji. He's no demon. He's just a man like billions of others. Soon you will have all their heads.
Makee Mu eya Ghashank'o. Mu q'a domo, k'unjo ba chkhan me mos ba. Yodu muuri ruq'otoza pkha. He's no demon. He's just a man. Soon they will all burn.
Makee Jan o bambit'atan. As promised.
Makee Ghashank'o jayatan. Mu yua pkha. Demon is here. Get him!!!
Mercy Ch'anggagomo maaro p'umo pkha. Gha oni Tkhuyujo o khawetan, mu o ch'awaruut'u tkhahana ba riin ngani. Mu o tkha tkhahaajen ghaazhi ni, mu ruubaachi. Jan o jan ga rotkho k'inajo (Idiom). Finding the ring is only the beginning. For reasons the ancients have kept from us, we need her to complete the Great Journey. But once it is complete, she will be destroyed. I will keep my promise.
Mercy Ch'anggagomo maaro p'umo pkha. Gha oni Tkhuyujo o khawetan, mu o ch'awaruut'u tkhahana ba riin ngani. Q'a ghaazhi mu ba riin ngani naseya, jan o jan ga rotkho k'inajo (Idiom). Finding the ring is only the beginning. For reasons the ancients have kept from us, we need her to complete the Great Journey. But once we no longer need her, I will keep my promise.
Mercy Jan o jan ga rotkho k'inajo. This Sangheili idiom, translating to 'I will bite my flesh,' symbolizes a commitment to keeping one's promise. Carl Buck crafted this idiom and drew inspiration from the concept of a 'blood oath,' akin to the practice of making a solemn promise by slicing the palm of one's own hand with a blade.
Mercy Eya. Nizhi yodu pkha. Nizhi yodu. No. It's too soon. Too soon.
Mercy Mu ba riin ngani ikhi. Baqkhat'a rasq'u, q'a mu matkhaya pkha. Wele oni oq'ogakha mech'imeya! We need him now. Knock-down his defenses but take him alive. And bring the keystones to our ship!
Mercy Mu o ch'anggagomo maaro ba riin ngani. Mu matkhaya pkha. We need him to find the ring. Take him alive.
Mercy Ghashank'o matkhaya pkha! Take the demon alive! (Do not kill the Demon whatsoever!)
Mercy Baashkhi shandeta ba, jaari o ch'anggagomo maarotan. Zus nizhi tkhaas, jaari moq'aaritan. Q'a jaari o q'amaamaro. For hundreds of generations, we have searched for the sacred ring. At times, our faith faltered. But still we searched.
Mercy Baashkhi shandeta ba, jaari o ch'anggagomo oni jaari gwijaga oq'ogakha maarotan. Zus nizhi tkhaas, jaari moq'aaritan. Q'a jaari o q'amaamaro. For hundreds of generations, we have searched for the keystone that will lead us to the sacred ring. At times, our faith faltered. But still we searched.
Mercy Ine Mot'onguut'u ga shak'o k'umas juuchkhugiijo. Aamu me mos ba tkhuyujo yodu jaari o ghashangojo. This is the vindication of the ways of the Covenant (This Covenant's ways are again vindicated). We will soon join the ancients as gods.
Mercy Hirajo'ni chkhan zhiiq'o ni diibe ts'aatsaha. Ghaazhi k'e guujen. K'e o jan oni ch'ano ga Ghashank'o bambit'aji. There is always a place for the Blessed One. If that is what you want. You promised me the demon's head.
Mercy Ine ba oq'ogakha ga juq'utan. Yodu ch'awaruut'u ba p'umo jayajaga. And the keystones are finally together. Soon we will begin our Great Journey.
Mercy Mu k'aachoya haazhi ni, tkhet'a me ruq'otajaga. Bambit'atan jan o q'unqeya, Juukhojo Gaik'inat'u. Once we no longer need her, she will burn along with her species. I have not forgotten my promise to you, Prophet Regret.
Mercy Ch'ammaarot'u ba, riin ba bambit'agha ch'anik'ojaga. After the long search, the promise shall be fulfilled.
Mercy EYA! Pkhada! NO! Stop!
Regret K'e o juuqkhaachi, Q'iitu. As you always have, Mercy. (You have always walked with certainty, Mercy.)
Regret Ne qkhado kkhago ruut'sagijaga...t'edaaq'u ruq'a t'isquuchaga...qkhadomo zhi shak'o ruq'echkhajaga. I shall light this holy ring...release its cleansing flame...and burn a path into the divine beyond.
Truth 🔊 Shandi o Shak'o ni qkhaachaga. Ch'awaruut'u ba p'umo ba ghaazhi ni ngajo mots'ahajaga. The Covenant shall walk the Path. None will be left behind when our Great Journey begins.

Sangheili war chant : The Ballad of Kel 'Darsam[edit]

A poem was crafted for the series inspired by the Ballad of Kel 'Darsam in Joseph Staten's short novel, Halo: Shadow of Intent. In the show, this ballad is sung as a Sangheili war chant. The line "K'iis o aamu ni mu maaroji" can be heard in Transcendence, the ninth and final episode of the first season. [16] The following are only the first eight lines of a lengthier poem.[17]

English Sangheili
Born of woman, fathered by Deity, Kel ‘Darsam was a pillar of piety, Dzana bojo ba, aamu nejo ba, K’elo Daasamu moq’aaji, ch’anaani,
Brave and noble, strong and wise, he sought only justice and no other prize, Dzima ze oq’o, haala ze khoya, gaibaat’u ba q’a bak’ontu maaroji,
He battled with monsters, slew terrible beasts, to make his lands safe and to guarantee peace, Mu o ghashank’o dzuk’uuchi, matkhaji; tkhaati’ni baat’u, dzukhunt’u waqkho’ni,
But jealous were others, who envied his grace, a rival Kaidon sought his rival’s disgrace, Q’a k’unjo’ mu’m ch’apkhaat’u ghamaaziji, K’aidon o mu juutkhoma maaroji,
But a cowardly fighter, disgraced and defeated, took aim at the two as they finally retreated, Q’a juutkhaat’u ba nuju k’uucho o muuri ni welekkhosa ni dzushkhaatan,
Kel ‘Darsam fell, spear in his back, down to the rocks where the waves did crack, Mu ni baan me luk’a o K’elo Daasamu mogha ni gakha oni ts’aatan,
But as Kel was falling, the sun was arising, the first rays of Urs halted ‘Darsam’s demising, K’elo ni ts’aha ni has o ruuekhi tkhazhi Daasamu ba q’ii pkhadatan,
The light found him godly with noble intention, and embraced him as kin and confirmed his ascension. K’iis o aamu ni mu maaroji, tkhazhi tkha o tkhet’a oni mu juuch’iitan.

Vocabulary List[edit]

Transcribed words[edit]

The following words were transcribed phonetically and showcased in Episode 4 of the TV series.

  • [saŋ.ɣ] - "sangheli" : Sangheili
  • [xo.bu] - "khobu" : shoot
  • [ki:.'gia:.ra] - "kiigiaara" : Kig-Yar
  • [ɣa.ˈʃaŋ.k'o.] - "ghashank'o" : demon
  • [o.' q'] : "oq'ogakha" : Keystone
  • [tʃ'aŋ.'] - "ch'anggagomo" : Halo
  • [sˣu.tʃo] - "skhucho" : Down
  • [do.tʃo] - "docho" : Up

Basic Nouns / Names[edit]

  • Buulo Ch'awaat'u : High Charity
  • Ch'adomo : Spartan(s)
  • Ch'ambuujo : Hierarch(s)
  • Ch'anggagomo : Halo, the Ring
    • Qkhado Ch'anggagomo : The Sacred Ring, The Holy Ring
  • Ch'awaruutu : The Journey
    • Oq'o Ch'awaruutu : The Great Journey
  • Domo : Human(s)
  • Gaik'inat'u : Prophet of Regret
  • Ghashank'o : Demon, Master Chief
  • Hirajo : Blessed One
  • Juukhojo : Prophet(s)
  • Maduriga: Madrigal
  • Mak'ii : Makee
  • Oq'ogakha : Keystone
  • Q'aatu : Prophet of Truth
  • Q'iitu : Prophet of Mercy
  • Sangheli : Sangheili
  • Shak'o : The Path, the way
  • Shandi : The Covenant, the alliance
  • T'injuqkhuujo : The Arbiter


  • aamu : god(s), deity(ies)
  • akke : hand


  • ba : [postposition] : out of, out from (elative) ; of (genitive)
  • baan : spine or back, behind
  • baashi : ceremony
  • baashkhi : hundreds
  • baaska : trap
  • baat'u : safety
  • bats'a : (v.) to bind, to be bound
  • baazhi : before, prior
  • baghiit'u : ignorance
  • bak'ontu : justice, righteousness
  • bakha : (v.) to burst, to explode
    • baabakha : (Reduplicative Form)
  • bambit'a : (v.) to promise something to someone, to hold in reserve or specially something for someone (derived from the verb: bit'a)
  • bambit'agha : promise, oath, vow
  • banechkha : (v.) to move aside, to move apart
  • banghaina : (v.) to sense, to detect, to perceive (derived from the verb: ghaina)
  • bank'utkho : (v.) to defend, to resist (derived from k'utkho, bank'utkho literally means "to fight with the back" and by metaph. extension, "to fight back")
  • baqkhat'a : shield, defenses; (v.) to shield, to shelter (derived from the verb: qkhat'a)
  • Baro : [Proper Noun] : A male given name. Latinized as Var. — Baro Gat'anai
  • bekkhajo : creature, animal
  • bit'a : (v.) to bear, to carry, to hold
  • bit'agha : container, holder, vessel
  • bojo : mother(s)
  • Buulo Ch'awaat'u : [Proper Noun] : High Charity


  • ch'aamosik'o : (v.) to better understand, to comprehend (derived from the verb: mosik'o)
  • ch'adomo : spartan(s)
  • ch'adonu : (v.) to notice, to pay attention (derived from the verb: donu)
  • ch'adzuma : dangerous
  • ch'amaaro : (v.) to look at, to glance at (derived from the verb: maaro)
  • ch'ambuujo : hierarch(s)
  • ch'ana : (v.) to read
  • ch'anaani : pillar
  • ch'anggaaya : over-valuable
  • ch'anggagomo : the sacred ring
  • ch'anghutkho : combat, skirmish
  • ch'anik'o : (v.) to see
  • ch'ano : head
  • ch'anopkho : (v.) to atone, to redeem a fault (derived from the verb: opkho)
  • ch'anopkhuutu : redemption
  • ch'anoq'o : great nobility
  • ch'anqi : extinction
  • ch'anqkhat'a : roof, top part
  • ch'anqkhoso : (v.) to run (derived from the verb: qkhoso)
  • ch'anzap'atu : great victory
  • ch'apkhaat'u : grace
  • ch'aqkhosa : (v.) to push forward
  • ch'awaat'u : charity
  • ch'awaqkho : (v.) to restore (derived from the verb: waqkho)
  • ch'i : third
  • ch'imo : (v.) to take, to get, to gather, to collect
  • ch'in : (v.) to take, to seize (ch'in literally means to stab; to pierce)
    • chinjin : (Reduplicative Form) were stabbing
  • changongo : chamber, room
  • chkha'a : (v.) to hunt, to pursue
    • chkhaaja'a : (Reduplicative Form)
  • chkhan : all, whole, entire
    • chkhan ba : all by
    • chkhan ni : over all
  • chkhugimo : altar
  • chkhuung : such that, so that


  • daagha : (v.) to worry
    • daagheya : worry not
  • diibe : place, where (conjunction), in / to a place, at / from which (See also: ghaadi)
  • dokkhat'u : kindness
  • domo : human(s)
  • donu : (v.) to rotate, to twist, to turn around
    • daadonu : (Reduplicative Form)
  • duje : (v.) to molt
  • dunga : world, planet
  • dzana : woman, mortal female
  • dzima : brave
  • dzuch'in : (v.) to steal (derived from the verb: ch'in)
  • dzuk'utkho : (v.) to battle, to do battle with (derived from the verb: k'utkho)
    • dzuk'uuchi : battled
  • dzukhunt'u : dominance
  • dzumbit'a : (v.) to wield (presumably a weapon) (derived from the verb: bit'a)
  • dzumema : (v.) to conquer, to subjugate (derived from the verb: ema)
  • dzumu : (v.) to be sharp
  • dzuqkhost'u : treachery
  • dzushkhop'o : (v.) to aim, to target (derived from the verb: shkhop'o)
  • dzushkhoomo : target
  • dzuutu : danger, peril


  • ema : (v.) to mount, to get on
    • aamema : (Reduplicative Form)
  • et'o : blades, swords
  • et'ojo : swordsman(men)
  • eya : no, or to negate something (if added at end of a verb)


  • ga : [postposition] : from, away from (ablative) ; of (genitive)
  • gadi : lower mandible
  • gaibaat'u : fortune, riches
  • gaibakha : (v.) to happen, to occur, to befall (derived from the verb: bakha)
  • gaich'in : (v.) to be wrong (derived from the verb: ch'in)
  • gaiduje : (v.) to sully, to dirty, to pollute (derived from the verb: duje)
  • gaighap'awa : (v.) to offend (derived from the verb: ghap'awa)
  • gaijaat'u : malfunction
  • gaijaya : (v.) to approach, to come near, to draw close (derived form the verb: jaya)
  • gaik'ina : (v.) to regret (derived from the verb: k'ina)
  • gaik'inat'u : regret
  • gaikhawa : (v.) to guess, to predict (derived from the verb: khawa)
  • gaikkhaajo : ones who believe, believers
  • gaikkhat'a : (v.) to believe, to anticipate
  • gaimaaro : (v.) to hope, to hope for, to expect (derived from the verb: maaro)
  • gaiwarut'o : (v.) to become lost, to be astray (derived from the verb: warut'o)
  • gakha : rocks, stones
  • gawaacho : priest(s)
  • gazhumaaka : alert; (v.) to alert, to warn, to give warning to
  • gha : what (pronoun)
  • ghaaba : (v.) to decay, to rot
    • ghaagaba : (Reduplicative Form)
  • ghaadi : where, in what place or position (See also: diibe)
  • ghaamos : why, how come
  • ghaakhe : how much
  • ghaasha : how
  • ghaazhi : [causal conjunction] (Because..., So..., For..., And if..., When...)
  • ghachkha'a : (v.) to track, to follow (derived from the verb: chkha'a)
  • ghaina : (v.) to hear
  • ghajaya : (v.) to return, to come back (derived from the verb: jaya)
  • ghakhawa : (v.) to blaspheme (derived from the verb: khawa)
  • ghakhot'u : blasphemy
  • ghamaaziit'u : jealousy
  • ghap'awa : (v.) to step
  • ghap'awagha : step
  • ghaq'aaga : map, chart
  • ghashango : (v.) to accompany, to follow to join
  • ghashank'o : demon, monster
    • baghashank'o : little demon, imp
  • ghat'iiwa : (v.) to hesitate, to delay (derived from the verb: t'iiwa)
    • ghat'iiweya : do not hesitate
  • ghats'aha : (v.) to be situated, to lie in place, to remain (derived from the verb: ts'aha)
  • ghats'aatu : remainder, remaining
  • ghu : [postposition] : O (vocative) (Occurs with the addressed or called-out elements.)
  • ghunu : (v.) to destroy, to eliminate (See also: ruubakha)
  • ghuuri : many, much
  • goja : top, above
  • guro : (v.) to want, to desire, to wish
  • guujo : ones who guide
  • guulo : master(s)
  • gwigha : direction, instruction, orders


  • haala : strong
    • haali : stronger
  • haanga : kind, ilk, allied
  • haat'u : ability
  • haazhi : once, as soon as
  • hai : (v.) to be able to
  • hait'u : strength, power, might
  • hira : (v.) to bless, to praise
  • hirat'u : blessing, praising
  • hirajo : ones who are blessed
  • hodu : (v.) to wait, to pause (and by extension: to await)
  • hunt'u : radiation, radiance


  • ii : [negative demonstrative determiner] : no, not
  • iiku : (v.) to know (information), to be familiar with
    • iik'uya : know not
  • iit'u : information, knowledge
  • ik'o : eye(s)
  • ikhi : now, presently
    • ikhi baazhi : previously
    • ikhi eya : not yet, not now
    • ikhi ga : right now, right away
    • ikhi jaya : come quickly, come now
  • ine : this, this one; proximal demonstrative singular pronoun


  • jaari : [First Person Plural pronoun] : we, us, ourselves (exclusive of you)
  • jaja : maybe, perhaps
  • jan : [First Person Singular pronoun] : I, me, myself
  • jaya : (v.) to come, to arrive
    • jejaya : (Reduplicative Form)
    • jayaleya : can not arrive
  • ju : one
  • juq'u : (v.) to connect, to join, to unite
  • juubaat'u : destiny, fate
  • juubit'a : (v.) to secure (derived from the verb: bit'a)
  • juuch'in : (v.) to accept, to adopt, to embrace (Also "to appreciate" and "to be grateful") (derived from the verb: ch'in)
  • juuch'imo : (v.) to accept (in a broad sense), to take (receive) (derived from the verb: ch'imo)
  • juudonu : (v.) to flank (derived from the verb: donu)
  • juukhawa : (v.) to claim, to declare, to profess (derived from the verb: khawa)
  • juukhojo : ones who prophesy, prophet(s)
  • juukhot'u : prophecy
  • juuluumo : legacy
  • juumatkha : (v.) to kill with certainty (derived from the verb: matkha)
  • juun : upper mandible
  • juunduje : (v.) to make look good, act good, perform well (derived from the verb: duje)
  • juunik'o : (v.) to foresee, to see ahead
  • juunik'otu : sight, seeing
  • juusatkha : of course (from the verb: satkha)
  • juusiit'a : (v.) to summon, to invoke (derived from the verb: siit'a)
  • juutkhaadola : enough
  • juutkhola : enough
  • juutkhaat'u : defeat


  • k'aachot'u : effectively
  • k'aaje : shame, fall; (v.) to shame
  • k'aidon : kaidon
  • k'e : [Second Person Singular pronoun] : you, yourself
  • K'elo : [Proper Noun] : A male given name. Latinized as Kel. — K'elo Daasamu
  • k'ena : (v.) to choose, to select, to decide on
  • k'enjo : ones who are chosen
  • k'iri : [Second Person Plural pronoun] : you, you all, yourselves
  • k'iis : light
  • k'iisho : luminary
  • k'ina : (v.) to bite
  • k'o : or
  • k'ondi : door, gate, entrance
  • k'onwele : tank
  • k'umas : again, once more
  • k'ung : both
  • k'unjo : another, others, the rest
  • k'utkho : (v.) to fight
  • k'uucho : warrior(s), fighter(s)
  • khaayagha : profit, benefit
  • khaayajo : someone of worth, value, or importance
  • khawa : (v.) to say
  • khayema : (v.) to scale by hand (derived from the verb: ema)
  • khebit'a : (v.) to have, to possess, to retain (derived from the verb: bit'a)
  • khebit'ajo : one who possesses a common quality, ones with a similarity
  • khech'imo: (v.) to retrieve, to get and bring back, to reclaim (derived from the verb: ch'imo)
  • khekhawa : (v.) to respond (derived from the verb: khawa)
  • kheluuga : artifact, relic
  • khemaarojo : ones who spy, spies
  • khis : mongrel
  • khisho : pest
  • khobu : (v.) to fire (from a weapon), to shoot
    • khobuuya : hold fire, cease firing, do not shoot
    • khuughobu : (Reduplicative Form) were shooting, were firing
  • khobuugha : gun, firearm
  • khoya : wise
  • khuut'a : brother(s), kin, same
  • khuzho : [Reflexive Pronoun] : one's self; myself, yourself, themselves, itself
  • kkhaaya : (v.) to be worthy, to have value, to matter
    • kkhaayeya : not worthy, hardly worth
  • kkhadza : (v.) to be correct, to be right
    • kkhagadza : (Reduplicative Form) correct, that's right
  • kkhadzat'u : right , rightful
  • kkhago : ring, circle ; (v.) to circle, to surround
  • kkhosa : (v.) to flee
  • kkhotskha : (v.) to be ruined, to have been put in a broken or fallen state


  • la'ajo : twin, partner, counterpart
  • lakhi : (v.) to rise up, to ascend
  • loshkho : (v.) to show
    • loloshkho : (Reduplicative Form) is revealing
  • luk'a : spear, pike
  • luuka : blood


  • maaro : (v.) to find, to look for, to seek
    • maamaro : (Reduplicative Form)
      • q'amaamaro : keep on searching
    • q'amaaro : keep looking, continue looking
  • maarot'u : a search, exploration, quest
  • maasa : time, point in time, period
  • maaziit'u : revenge, hatred, vendetta
  • maikhu : tool, device
  • maskhit'u : temper
  • matkha : (v.) to kill, to slay
    • matkhaji : killed, slew
    • matkhaya : do not kill
  • me : [postposition] : in, inside, inside of (inessive) ; of (genitive)
  • mech'imo : (v.) to take with, to bring, to obtain (derived from the verb: ch'imo)
  • mech'in : (v.) to cut, to rip
  • mechkhuut'u : redemption
  • meghizit'u : mission
  • mejaya : (v.) to prepare, to be ready
    • mejayajo : preparing
    • mejayaq'u : get equipped
  • mekhu : instrument (see also: maikhu)
  • mep'uuka : interrogation
  • mobakha : (v.) to realize, to acknowledge (derived from the verb: bakha)
  • moduje : (v.) to lose track of, to have lost (derived from the verb: duje)
  • mobaat'u : revelation
  • mobit'a : (v.) to remind (derived from the verb: bit'a)
  • mogha : waves, surge
  • mojaya : (v.) to remember (derived from the verb: jaya)
  • moq'aara : (v.) to be pious, to have faith (derived from the verb: q'aara)
    • moq'aaji : pious, devout
  • moq'aajo : zealot(s)
  • moq'aatu : faith
  • mos : brain, mind
    • me mos ba : like, as, just as
  • moshkhop'o : (v.) to indicate (derived from the verb: shkhop'o)
  • mosik'o : (v.) to think, to understand
    • mosik'weya : do not understand
  • mositskha : (v.) to intrigue, to fascinate (derived from the verb: itskha)
  • mosone : counsel, advice
  • mot'onguu : (v.) to agree (derived from the verb: t'onguu)
  • mot'onguut'u : agreement, covenant, pact
  • mots'aha : (v.) to leave behind, to abandon (derived from the verb: ts'aha)
  • mu : [Third Person singular pronoun] : he/him/himself, she/her/herself, they/themself
  • muni : (v.) to tire, to grow weary
  • muuri : [Third Person plural pronoun] : they, them, themselves


  • nasa : exceeds (a bit much, much too, far too, more)
    • naseya : no more, no longer
  • naya : (v.) to fertilize an egg
    • nenaya : (Reduplicative Form) were fertilizing
  • ne : [proximal demonstrative determiner] : this
  • nejo : father(s)
  • nga : nothing, without, absent
  • ngajo : nobody, no one, none
  • ngani : need, must, require
  • ngatkhet'a : (adj.) absent, missing
  • ngeno : (v.) to save
  • ngitkhagha : controls
  • nguuka : energy, spirit
  • ni : [postposition] : at, on, near (adessive) ; of (genitive)
  • nizhi : and (when used to coordinate nouns and sentences: also, in addition, about, as well) (See also: ze)
  • nuju : (v.) to be weak, cowardly, pathethic
  • nujujo : weakling, the weak, ones who display cowardice
  • nujut'u : weakness


  • o : [postposition] : (ergative) (Occurs with the subject of an action that involves a direct object.)
  • obadi : prison
  • ogha : foot
    • ogha ni : near, close
  • oni : [postposition] : to, toward, onto (allative) ; of (genitive)
  • opkho : (v.) to bend
    • pkhaapkho : (Reduplicative Form) were bending
  • oq'o : (v.) to be great, glorious, noble, have honor
    • oq'eya : no honor
  • oq'otu : glory, honor
  • oq'ogakha : the sacred stones
  • ot'a : (v.) to suffer, to endure
    • ot'oza : (Reduplicative Form)


  • p'aatu : pity
  • p'ayut'u : exactly
  • p'ekkha : (v.) to form, to shape
  • p'es : worm
  • p'ikhe : creature, animal
  • p'uuka : question; (v.) to question, to ask
  • pkha : [an auxiliary used for emphasis or to convey a sense of urgency] (really, greatly, definitely)
  • pkhada : (v.) to stop, to halt, to cease
  • pkhot'a : in front of, before, facing
  • pkhungo : (v.) to sleep
    • pkhubungo : (Reduplicative Form) were sleeping
  • p'umo : start, begins, beginning
    • bap'umo : source, origin, root


  • q'a : but, but rather, yet
  • q'aara : true; (v.) to be true, to be loyal
  • q'aatu : truth
  • q'aha : (v.) to touch
  • q'aya : simple
  • q'on : (v.) to teach, to instruct
  • q'uho : (v.) to be silent, to quiet
  • q'unqa : (v.) to forget, to forgive
    • q'unqijaga : will forget
  • q'ii : dead, death, demising
  • q'iitu : mercy
  • qkhaamo : shrine, temple
  • qkhaat'u : holiness
  • qkhaaq'u : consecrate
  • qkhado : holy, sacred
  • qkhadomo : divine beyond
  • qkhan : enemy(ies)
  • qkhat'a : (v.) to defend, to guard, to protect
  • qkhe : [interjection] oh
    • qkhe p'os : oh shit
  • qkhoso : (v.) to walk
    • qkhaachaga : will walk, shall walk
    • qkhoghoso : (Reduplicative Form) were walking


  • Raas Kkhotskha : [Proper Noun] : A name of a Sangheili planet.
  • rasq'u : (v.) to knock down, to cause to fall
  • Riich'e : [Proper Noun] : Reach
  • riikhe : crowd, group, multitude
    • riikhe ni : together, all together
    • riikhe oni : regroup, rally together
    • riikhe zi : among, in company
  • riin : [First Person Plural pronoun] : we, us, ourselves (inclusive of you)
  • rojo : pet
  • rotkho : flesh, skin, hide
  • rube : ground, soil, earth
  • ruq'a : fire, flame
  • ruq'aara : (v.) to anoint, to sanctify (derived from the verb: q'aara)
  • ruq'echkha : (v.) to burn, to shine, to illuminate
  • ruq'ota : (v.) to burn, to scorch (derived from the verb: ot'a)
    • ruq'otoza : (Reduplicative Form)
  • ruubakha : (v.) to destroy, to obliterate (derived from the verb: bakha) (See also: ghunu)
  • ruujaya : (v.) to hurry, to hustle, to come quickly (derived from the verb: jaya)
  • ruuk'ina : (v.) to attack (derived from the verb: k'ina)
  • ruukhawa : (v.) to command (derived from the verb: khawa)
  • ruupkhada : (v.) to prevent, to stop (derived from the verb: pkhada)
  • ruuq'ontu : reeducation
  • ruuq'uuka : punishment, chastisement
  • ruut'sage : (v.) to light, to kindle, to ignite, to set fire to (derived from the verb: ts'age)


  • saatu : absolutely
  • Sangheli : Sanghelios
  • satkha : (v.) to be certain, to be sure
    • sasatkha : (Reduplicative Form) emphatically sure
  • shaadat'u : loyalty
  • shak'o : route, path, way
  • shandeta : ages, generations
  • siit'a : (v.) to call (out to)
  • skhala : hammer, mallet
  • skhuro : kind, sort, type
  • shkhii : odor, smell, stench
  • shkhoot'u : sign, signal
  • shkhop'o : (v.) to mark, to point
  • suung : heart


  • T'elo : [Proper Noun] : A male given name. Latinized as Thel. — T'elo Badami
  • t'ichin : (v.) to insult, to ridicule (derived from the verb: ch'in)
  • t'ighaina : (v.) to hear and understand, to read one another (derived from the verb: ghaina)
  • t'iis : word
  • t'iiwa : (v.) to doubt, to disbelieve
    • t'iiweya : doubt not
  • t'iiwajo : ones who doubt, infidels, heretic(s)
  • t'ik'utkho : (v.) to argue, to dispute (derived from the verb: k'utkho)
  • t'ikhawa : (v.) to speak, to chat (derived from the verb: khawa)
  • t'ikhori : communications
  • t'iloshkho : (v.) to inform, to tell, to say to (derived from the verb: loshkho)
  • t'injuqkhuujo : arbiter(s)
  • t'ipekkha : (v.) to suggest, to propose (derived from the verb: p'ekkha)
  • t'ishkhop'o : (v.) to accuse, to blame (derived from the verb: shkhop'o)
  • t'isiit'a : (v.) to contact, to communicate (derived from the verb: siit'a)
  • t'isiit'agha : transmission
  • t'iskina (v.) to whisper, to mutter (derived from the verb: k'ina)
  • t'iskinagha : rumor, rumors, whispering, whispers
  • t'ispkhada : (v.) to deny, to oppose (derived from the verb: pkhada)
  • t'ispkhadajo : ones who deny or dare oppose
  • t'isqukho : (v.) to release, to let loose, to unleash
  • t'iswaqkho : (v.) to permit, to allow, to sanction (derived from the verb: waqkho)
  • t'iya : (v.) to live, to be alive, to manifest
  • t'iyat'u : life, lives, existence
  • t'onguu : (v.) to meet
  • t'ulu : bone
  • tkha : [Inanimate Third Person Singular pronoun] : it; [distal demonstrative determiner] : that
  • tkhaari : [Inanimate Third Person Plural pronoun] : those, them
  • tkhaas : there, over there
    • tkhaas oni : to there, that way
  • tkhahana : (v.) to finish, to conclude, to end something
  • tkhazhi : then, and then
  • tkhet'a : species, people, folk, kin (tkhet'a literally means a nest or den)
    • tkhet'a ga : please (directly translating to Of the people or For the people)
  • tkhop'o : (v.) to name
    • tkhaadop'o : (Reduplicative Form) were naming
  • tkhu : (n.) thing, object
  • tkhunga : (v.) to send, to deliver
  • tkhungat'u : herald, bearer
  • tkhuyujo : ancients, forerunner(s)
  • ts'aha : (v.) to be at, to be in proximity
    • ts'aatsaha : (Reduplicative Form)
  • ts'ukho : (v.) to be
    • ts'uutsukho : (reduplication) : (v.) to be emphatically true
    • ts'ukhi : come to be, turn out to be, was
  • ts'uuchaga : yes, will be, shall be
  • ts'uutsughaleya : impossible, cannot be possible
  • tskha : (v.) to do


  • uro : claws
  • Ut'o : [Proper Noun] : A male given name. — Ut'o Madama
  • uuri : very much, nearly, fairly, quite
  • uutu : evil


  • waaka : gift, present
    • gawaaka : sacrifice, offering
  • waqkho : (v.) to give, to grant, to offer
  • warut'o : (v.) to go, to move forward, to charge (inspired by wort from the games)
    • q'awarut'o : continue on, onward
  • waruutu : journey, voyage, expedition
  • watkho : (v.) to fear, to be afraid of
  • wele : ship, vessel
  • welegoja : bridge (of a spaceship), command center
  • welema : (v.) to board (derived from the verb: ema)
  • welekkhosa : (v.) to retreat (derived from the verb: kkhosa)
  • welit'ari : fleet
  • wighe : ash, ashes


  • yaala : body
  • yodu : soon


  • zap'atu : victory
  • zaya : (v.) to expand
    • zaazaya : (Reduplicative Form) were expanding
  • ze : and (when used to coordinate adjectives) (See also: nizhi)
  • zhaan : day
  • zhi : [postposition] : into, in (illative) ; of (genitive)
  • zhiiqo : time, times
  • zhuro : weapon(s)
  • zo : [medial demonstrative determiner] : that

Uncertain Vocabulary[edit]

The following words do not appear frequently in Peterson's translations.

  • asho : blue
  • ch'intu : wound
    • bach'intu : scratch, little wound
  • bank'ina : (v.) to ignore, to disregard (derived from the verb: k'ina)
  • gwis : (v.) to lead, to guide
  • has : sun
  • juushkhop'o : (v.) to specify, to clarify (derived from the the verb: shkhop'o)
  • kheyua : (v.) to grasp, to take up, to grab (derived from the verb: yua)
  • lushkho : star
  • ngodza : metal
  • p'uko : book
  • q'iskhe : (v.) to appear intact, to be whole/complete
  • res : to die
  • ruubaabaacho : intruder(s)
  • ts'age : (v.) to glow, to shine
  • ts'epa : rod
  • yua : (v.) to take hold of, to grab
  • zhiija : appropriately, rightly, suitably


  1. ^ Twitter, Kiki Wolfkill (@k_wolfkill): "@CharlieBMurphy literally learned an entire new language and performed beautifully in that language. Unreal. Language created by David Peterson who created Dothraki for GoT #HaloWatchParty" (Retrieved on Mar 25, 2022) [archive]
  2. ^ Twitter, C. Buck (@tlacamazatl): "If you have #ParamountPlus, are a fan of #HaloSeries , and enjoy a good #conlang. You might be interested to know that I helped @Dedalvs develop the language for the Covenant." (Retrieved on Apr 6, 2022) [archive]
  3. ^ Archive of Our Own - Conlang Dialogue: Halo (Paramount+)
  4. ^ a b c d YouTube - Halo The Series, Learn To Speak Sangheili (Retrieved on Aug 28, 2023)
  5. ^ Halo Waypoint, Silver Debrief: Unmasked (Retrieved on Mar 12, 2024) [archive]
  6. ^ Tumblr, Dedalvs: "Inspiration, not really. It was all gibberish. Specifically, for the later games, they’d just throw the lines into Google Translate, translate them to Japanese, reverse them, and have the voice actors read it. This is rather common for video games." (Retrieved on Mar 12, 2024) [archive]
  7. ^ Archive of Our Own - Conlang Dialogue: Chapter 6
  8. ^ Twitter, David J. Peterson (@Dedalvs): "P and T. Wasn’t too concerned. After all, München becomes Munich in English; Köln Cologne, etc." (Retrieved on Apr 6, 2022) [archive]
  9. ^ Twitter, David J. Peterson (@Dedalvs): "B, I’m that case." (Retrieved on Apr 6, 2022) [archive]
  10. ^ Twitter, David J. Peterson (@Dedalvs): "Cases are, in this case, little tags that let you know what role a noun plays in the sentence. Ergative and absolutive are grammatical; vocative is for direct address; the rest are locative. I’ll explain these." (Retrieved on Apr 6, 2022) [archive]
  11. ^ Twitter, David J. Peterson (@Dedalvs): "The locative cases are analogous to the following English prepositions: Ablative: wele ga “from the ship” Adessive: wele ni “on the ship” Allative: wele oni “to the ship” Elative: wele ba “out of the ship” Illative: wele zhi “into the ship” Inessive: wele me “in the ship"" (Retrieved on Apr 6, 2022) [archive]
  12. ^ Twitter, David J. Peterson (@Dedalvs): "Those familiar with cases may notice there are no possessive cases. This is because one uses various of the other cases for possession depending on the nature of the possessive relationship." (Retrieved on Apr 6, 2022) [archive]
  13. ^ Twitter, David J. Peterson (@Dedalvs): "The other big table up there has less to do with grammar than the lexicon. The instrumental prefixes are used to derive new verbs from verb bases. It’s a little like how we have verbs like “deduce”, “produce”, “induce”, “adduce”, etc." (Retrieved on Apr 6, 2022) [archive]
  14. ^ Twitter, David J. Peterson (@Dedalvs): "#Sangheili has 8 tenses, but the meanings of those tenses vary depending on whether the verb is stative or dynamic." (Retrieved on Apr 6, 2022) [archive]
  15. ^ Twitter - David J. Peterson
  16. ^ Halo Waypoint, Silver Debrief: Transcendence (Retrieved on Aug 22, 2023) [archive]
  17. ^ Archive of Our Own - Conlang Dialogue: The Ballad of Kel Darsam