From Halopedia, the Halo wiki
Biofoam (short for biomedical foam) is a self-sealing, space-filling coagulant and an antimicrobial, tissue-regenerative foam polymer used by the United Nations Space Command as a form of medical first aid. This foam keeps damaged organs in place and helps stop bleeding and hemorrhaging. The medicinal compound is morphophetamine in a polyethyltriphosphate liquid medium dispensed with nitrous oxide. When applied, the polyethyltriphosphate and nitrous oxide mix to create a foaming effect that can encapsulate, disinfect, and numb wounds. Within the Unified Earth Government, biofoam is an OTC-legal product and can be purchased legally "over-the-counter."
Usage and effects
Biofoam is generally contained within a cylindrical canister or bottle with a deployable nozzle used to apply the mixture directly to the affected area of a patient, although it can also be rubbed into a wound rather than injected. When applied and exposed to air, the nitrous oxide and liquid polyethyltriphosphate mix, they produce a foaming reaction. The foam strongly adheres to tissues and simultaneously releases encapsulated medical compounds that advances clotting, disinfects the wound, and eventually numbs pain. After a short duration of time, the foam applied will set and become a semi-rigid, porous mass internally, which forms a hardened skin on regions of the body exposed to air. The standard dosage is 10 centiliters (10cL) or 3.38 fl. oz.
Despite biofoam's numbing properties, for the first few seconds after its application to an open wound, it is known to be very painful, described as feeling like "burning ants crawling around the wound" and "thousands of tiny knives" stabbing the recipient. Biofoam does not seem to have this kind of painful reaction when applied to an unwounded area, as during the Battle of Mombasa, Jonathan Doherty was seen spraying a small amount onto his uninjured fingers and does not react in pain. The effects of biofoam are temporary, and after a few hours, it simply breaks down. Therefore, it is normally a form of first aid, used only as a temporary sealant until proper medical attention can be sought. In extremely rare cases, allergic reactions to biofoam have been documented. Edema is a rare side effect of biofoam, caused by excess fluid trapped in the body's tissues.
Biofoam is often used as a medical option when there are no medical personnel available. Bottles of biofoam can be found in health packs. UNSC medics will use it as a sealing agent during treatment in the field. The MJOLNIR Mark VI, MJOLNIR GEN2, and MJOLNIR GEN3 armors contain automatic biofoam injectors, which negate the need for their Spartan wearers to use health packs.
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