From Halopedia, the Halo wiki
Hemoglobin (also spelled haemoglobin, and abbreviated as Hb or Hgb) is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of vertebrates. In mammals, the protein makes up about 97% of the red cell’s dry content, and around 35% of the total content (including water). Hemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs or gills to the rest of the body, such as to the muscles, where it releases the oxygen for cell use. It also has a variety of other roles of gas transport and effect-modulation which vary from species to species, and are quite diverse in some invertebrates.
List of appearances