Earth

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Earth
H4-Earth.jpg
Astrographical

Star, position:

Sol System, Sol/Sun, III

Moon(s):

Luna

Physical

Diameter:

12,742 km

Gravity:

1.0 G (9.8 m/s2)

Length of day:

23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds

Length of year:

365.2425 days

Atmosphere:

.9 atm (N2, O2)

Societal

Population:

  • Approx. 10 billion (Pre-Battle of Earth)[1][2]
  • Approx. 200 million (Post-Battle of Earth, as of Nov. 2552)[3][4]
  • Several billion (late 2553)[2]

Government:

Emergency military (UNSC/UEG)

Technology tier:

Tier 3

 
"Fight for her."
—Bulletin board poster of Earth

Earth, known in prehistoric times as "Erde-Tyrene"[5] or "Erda",[6] is the third planet of the Sol system, and one of four terrestrial worlds. Homeworld of the human species, Earth has been at the forefront of galactic history, from encounters with the Precursors[5] to the end of the Covenant.[7] Inhabited long ago by a prehistoric interstellar human civilization conquered and dissolved by the Forerunners,[5] Earth is currently the capital world of the Unified Earth Government.

With a population of ten billion, Earth was the most populated planet in UEG territory prior to the Covenant invasion. Despite being dramatically reduced during the Covenant attack in 2552 due to both casualties inflicted by the Covenant and a major evacuation effort, the population had again risen to several billion by the end of the year 2553.[2]

History

Pangaea, the super-continent 250 million years ago that was the amalgamation of all current present-day continents.

Prehistory

Main article: Prehistoric human civilization

The Earth first formed about 4.6 billion years ago, and gave rise to the first single-celled organisms about 3.9 billion years ago. About 200,000 years ago, the ancestors of modern humans, Homo sapiens, evolved in Africa. Indigenous to Eastern Africa, they gradually spread across the entire planet. Eventually, the humans, originally consisting of groups of hunter-gatherers, began to develop into civilizations.

Human civilizations gradually became more and more complex, and eventually, humanity discovered spaceflight and spread across the Orion Arm of the Milky Way Galaxy. Early on, humanity underwent a period of technological and social regression, losing most of their records in the process. Having spread to many other worlds, it was not until thousands of years later that they rediscovered Earth to be their planet of origin. Earth was one of the first human worlds to fall to the Forerunners in the Human-Forerunner War.[6] After being defeated by the Forerunner civilization, the humans were exiled back to Earth, with their civilization dismantled, populations splintered amongst the many human species and their culture degrading back to a primitive state for millennia.[5]

After the war with the Forerunners, Earth and humanity came under the charge of the the Librarian, a Forerunner Lifeshaper who helped the humans slowly work towards rebuilding a primitive civilization. Remnants of their former technology, such as steam power and hot-air balloon flight, were re-learned under her care but later forgotten after the firing of the Halo Array.[5]

Forerunner-Flood war

Mount Kilimanjaro moments before the Halo effect reaches Earth.

Near the end of their war with the Flood, the Forerunners, specifically the Lifeworkers under the direction of the Librarian, indexed many of Earth's species - including humans - as a part of their Conservation Measure to preserve life in the galaxy after the activation of the Halo Array. Prior to the activation, after surveying the planet, beacons were activated informing humans imprinted with the Librarian's geas to gather to evacuate the planet. Lifeworkers only had time to evacuate one out of a thousand of the planet's large species; countless species would be left behind. Several days into the evacuation the Librarian and IsoDidact arrived in the system to speak with Catalog. The evacuation was halted ahead of schedule as the Flood had broken through the local Forerunner defenses and were entering the system.[8]

After the Ur-Didact composed most of the human population on Omega Halo, the Librarian realized the remaining population would not be enough to repopulate the species. She sent Chant-to-Green to see how much the Flood had taken in the system and save whatever humans she could. The Flood had left Earth untouched after the Forerunners evacuated. Chant was only able to gather a few hundred humans to send to Installation 00. When Precursor star roads began to appear in the system, she told Chant she would stay on Earth and gave Chant the title of Lifeshaper. Later, a Gargantua-class transport arrived to be disassembled and reconfigured, and after gathering the necessary materials, formed a portal to the Ark.[9]

After the Array's activation, human life was planted back on Earth, where it successfully re-developed.[10]

Civilization and the Modern Age

Main articles: Human and World War II

After the recovery from the Array, humans reduced back to hunter-gatherers for nearly a hundred thousand years, until civilizations began to form anew.

By the year 1914, much of the world was divided into two factions, the Triple Entente, or Allies: the United Kingdom, France, Russia, and later the United States of America, and the Triple Alliance, or Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and other nations of similar ideals. The Central Powers were defeated at the end of World War I in 1918, resulting in a decade of prosperity for the Allies, followed by an economic depression and the rise of Fascism, Nazism, and Communism in many countries. In 1939, another World War erupted, between the Allies (Britain, the Soviet Union, later the United States, and many other nations) and the Axis (Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and the Empire of Japan). In 1945, the Allies defeated the Axis. Later that year, the victorious nations, in an attempt to prevent more World Wars, founded the United Nations, an international assembly of peaceful nations, whose goal was to settle international disputes peacefully, and was the predecessor to the UNSC. In 1957, humanity finally made their way into space with unmanned probes and by 1961, humans themselves had gone into space. In 1969, humanity had finally stepped on an extraterrestrial surface-Earth's Moon.

After World War II, humanity would lack war on that scale, although smaller wars and conflicts erupted, including the Korean War, Vietnam War, Cold War, and the first and second Iraq War. In the early 21st century, terrorism became a particular thorn in the side for the nations on Earth and small wars broke out along with civil unrest in many countries. However, no full wars on the same scale as past World Wars erupted until two centuries later.

Interplanetary colonization and conflicts

Main articles: Jovian Moons Campaign, Rain Forest Wars, Argyre Planitia Campaign, and Interplanetary War

By 2080, humanity's national governments, under the auspices of the United Nations, had begun to establish colonies on the other planets in the Sol system. However, expansion did not come without problems. In the mid-22nd century, two major dissident factions emerged; the neo-communist Koslovics and fascist Frieden, which began to battle one another and the United Nations.[11]

In March-June 2160, Jovian Frieden secessionists attacked United Nations colonial advisers on the moon Io, which led to three months of fighting between the Earth military and Jovian Frieden forces. National governments began to support their own colonies which sparked proxy wars off-planet, leading to tension and militarization on Earth. In 2162, armed conflict ripped through South America, starting the Rain Forest Wars, as Koslovic, Frieden, and UN forces all clashed over ideological differences, sparking additional conflicts off-planet. In December of 2163, the three factions clashed, this time on Mars. This was the first extraterrestrial use of Marines, who launched lightning raids on Koslovic positions, permanently affecting military doctrine for centuries. In 2164, UN forces began a massive military build-up and began the first true interplanetary war. The forces of the fledgling United Nations Space Command were significantly bolstered by a massive propaganda campaign running on the victories on Mars and over the next six years took back the Sol system and drove the dissident factions to destruction. Now with a massive military with no enemy to fight, overpopulation, famine, and a collapsing economy, the newly unified Earth faced an uncertain future.[11]

It was not until 2291 that this problem was solved when researchers created the Shaw-Fujikawa Translight Engine which enabled superluminal travel by allowing access to an alternate domain known as Slipstream space. In 2310, the UNSC unveiled their first line of colony ships and the best and brightest from both civilian walks of life and the military set out to form the Inner Colonies. This eased the overpopulation problem upon Earth which became the capital of the Unified Earth Government, while the inner colony of Reach would later become the headquarters of the UNSC.[11]

The Insurrection and the Human-Covenant War

Earth in 2552.
Main articles: Insurrection and Human-Covenant War

Humanity would enter a period of peaceful stability for the next two hundred years, until civil unrest began to spread in the Outer Colonies, with various groups seeking secession from Earth and the UEG. The scale of the unrest would steadily rise, soon becoming a major threat to the UEG's existence. This provoked the UNSC to initiate the ORION Project and later the SPARTAN-II program in order to create powerful shock troops to quell the escalating Insurrection.

All this was suddenly and violently rendered a moot point when a single alien ship made an unprovoked attack on the colony of Harvest; humanity's first encounter with an alien civilization - the Covenant. Over the next twenty-seven years, humanity would wage a brutal war for survival, losing hundreds of colonies, including virtually all of the Outer Colonies in 2536; and on August 31st, 2552, the UNSC's largest military installation, the planet Reach, was discovered and invaded by the Covenant. During the entire course of the conflict, the UNSC followed the Cole Protocol, which declared that no UNSC vessel targeted by the Covenant was to retreat to Earth, as a means of ensuring the secrecy and security of the planet's location. In nearly twenty-seven years of galactic warfare, the Covenant never succeeded in determining the location of Earth through the measures taken under the Cole Protocol. However, by September, 2552, Earth was humanity's last major stronghold in its war against the Covenant.

Despite the effectiveness of this law, on October 20th, 2552, the Covenant launched their first attack upon Earth, rendering the Cole Protocol moot and initiating the final confrontation between UNSC forces and the Covenant.[12][13]

Pre-Battle of Earth

Prior to the Covenant invasion of Earth, there had been a suppressed influx of information by ONI, resulting in people going about their normal lives even up until the attack. The forces stationed at Earth were heavy, with the Second Fleet, Seventh Fleet, the Sixteenth Fleet and the 6th Battle Group along with large amounts of Marines, Army Troopers, and ODSTs present, five SPARTAN-IIs, Admiral Hood and Earth's most prominent means of defense, three hundred Orbital Defense Platforms, each sporting a Mk. V "Super" MAC. Also, there were numerous human colonies on various moons, a large naval shipyard and factories at Mars, and a listening post at Io.

Battle of Earth

The UNSCDF in a counteroffensive engagement in response to the Covenant occupation of Mombasa.
Main article: Battle of Earth
"The entire population of Earth was cut in half as the first battle of Earth began..."
Halo Encyclopedia[1]

On October 20th, 2552, the first Covenant forces entered the Sol system. A Covenant expeditionary force consisting of battlecruisers and assault carriers arrived in system, first detected around Io, the third largest moon of Jupiter.[13] After the existence of the Covenant presence was confirmed by probes, the UNSCDF forces went to full alert. The option was taken to wait for the Covenant forces to come to them rather than let Fleet Admiral Harper launch a counter attack. The Covenant began to work on punching a hole through the orbital defenses by taking out the stations in the battle cluster above the Mediterranean Sea via bombs planted by boarding parties.[13] After the Covenant fleet attempted to rush through the newly formed gap the UNSC fleet annihilated them, destroying most of the Covenant battlecruisers but failing to destroy the assault carriers. One of the assault carriers was successfully destroyed by SPARTAN-II John-117 but the other, commanded by the High Prophet of Regret assaulted the city of Mombasa in Kenya.[14]

Groundside, the Covenant assault carrier had already deployed its ground forces and occupied the city. The Covenant ground forces immediately constructed defense emplacements and structures to reinforce their newly-acquired sites against the counter-offensive UNSC forces. The UNSC In Amber Clad was the first UNSC ship to respond to the Covenant occupation. The ship sent in their complements consisting of SPARTAN-II John-117, Sergeant Avery Johnson and elements of the 7th Orbital Drop Shock Trooper Battalion.[14] The Covenant were subsequently dislodged from Old Mombasa and, following the destruction of a Scarab, from New Mombasa as well.[14][15] The High Prophet of Regret eventually ordered a general retreat and had his assault carrier initiate a slipspace jump while still over the city. The In Amber Clad followed in the carrier's wake, while the city was left in chaos.[15]

A larger Covenant fleet arriving shortly after Regret's departure and excavating around Mombasa.

Prior to the slipspace event, a contingent of ODSTs were dropped from the UNSC Say My Name to assist the In Amber Clad's counter-offensive efforts.[16] The slipspace rupture prevented the assist from taking place, plunging the ODSTs into uncontrolled freefall and scattered across the city. However, one particular squad of ODSTs survived and continued their operation in securing the city's infrastructure AI.[16] During the operation, the squad witnessed the arrival of a larger Covenant fleet after escaping the city.[16]

The Covenant returned in force following the Prophet of Regret's abortive attack and Covenant assault forces succeeded in penetrating the orbital defenses. At Mount Erebus, the sea floor off of the the Yucatan Peninsula, and at the Centennial Orbital Elevator in Havana, Cuba, the Covenant were stymied by three SPARTAN-II's, only to have those SPARTAN-IIs get re-deployed to Onyx.[17] The Covenant deployed their forces all across Earth, striking at major cities such as Cleveland, Ohio; but this attack too was repulsed through the efforts of ODST forces and the self-sacrifice of Colonel James Ackerson. The Covenant also attacked Sydney, home of the UNSC Headquarters, HIGHCOM Facility Bravo-6. Fortunately, despite the enormous damage inflicted on the city, the UNSC HQ survived completely unharmed, owing to its underground facilities. However, UNSC forces were unable to repulse and route Covenant landings in Kenya. After breaking Earth's space defenses, the Covenant bombarded Earth in Eastern Africa. The Covenant eventually succeeded in eradicating Mombasa and uncovering their primary target: The Portal.

The arrival in-system of SPARTAN-117 in a Covenant-controlled Forerunner Dreadnought, freshly escaped from the Battle of Installation 05, was unexpected.[18] SPARTAN-117 disembarked from the dreadnought in Earth's atmosphere, later recovered by Marines and taken to Crow's Nest.[19] With the aid of the Arbiter, Commander Miranda Keyes, and Sergeant Avery Johnson, SPARTAN-117 breached the Covenant anti-air defenses near the excavated artifact, clearing the way for an aerial strike on the Dreadnought powering it.[20][21] The strike was unable to disable the device or prevent the Prophet of Truth from traveling through the portal. After a brief intervention by the Flood a joint Sangheili/UNSC force departed through the portal in pursuit.[22] This series of events saw the complete departure of the Covenant from Earth as they ventured forth to Installation 00, where they would finally be crushed by the UNSC and their Covenant separatist allies.

Following the victory at the Battle of Earth and the Battle of Installation 00, the Human-Covenant War ended in March 2553. Many of Earth's cities were left in ruins and the planet's population was sharply reduced as a result of the Covenant invasion. With the war's end and the departure of the Covenant separatists to their respective homeworlds, the UNSC has begun to rebuild the extensive damage inflicted upon Earth's infrastructure and human population.

In the postwar rebuilding period, Earth has seen an influx of asylum seekers from the remnants of the Covenant. The admittance of such alien races has fueled a security crisis on Earth as UEG authorities have been tasked with preventing violent dissidents among these alien refugees from carrying out attacks against the human population. One such incident was a foiled threat of nuclear bombing in Rio de Janeiro.[23]

The Didact's attack

Main article: Battle of Earth (2557)
The Didact's flagship fires the Composer on New Phoenix on Earth in 2557.

In July 2557, the Forerunner known as the Didact arrived in-system aboard his flagship, the Mantle's Approach, planning to use a device known as the Composer to enslave humanity. Having been forewarned by Captain Thomas Lasky of the UNSC Infinity, the UNSC Home Fleet was ready and led by the Infinity, engaged Mantle's Approach. Meanwhile, Master Chief John-117 had stowed aboard the Mantle's Approach and with help from the Infinity, boarded the ship. Before the Master Chief could stop the Didact, the Composer began to fire on New Phoenix, Arizona, digitizing its entire population. John-117 eventually destroyed the ship with a nuclear device, ending the threat of the Didact and the Composer for the time being.

Earth locations

Planetside

Planetside, Earth has seven continents of extremely varied climates and cultures.

Africa

Mount Kilimanjaro as viewed from the Nkuu River in Kenya in 2552.

Oceania

The Australian city of Sydney, home of the UNSC Headquarters, pictured prior to the Covenant invasion in 2552.

Asia

North America

The deserted city streets of New Phoenix in 2557; its terraced urban architecture reflects that of other worlds such as Reach.

South America

Quito, one of many massive metropolises on Earth and home to the Quito Space Tether.

Europe

Antarctica

Arctic

Orbital

Gallery

Main-Superintendent.png Browse more images on this article's gallery page.

List of appearances

Sources

  1. ^ a b Halo Encyclopedia, page 282
  2. ^ a b c Twitter: @HaloWaypoint Hey, what was the population of Earth prior to November 2552?
  3. ^ Halo: The Essential Visual Guide, page 54
  4. ^ Halo 3 Bestiarum
  5. ^ a b c d e Halo: Cryptum
  6. ^ a b Halo: Primordium, page 238
  7. ^ Halo 3, level Halo
  8. ^ Halo: Silentium, String 2
  9. ^ Halo: Silentium, String 37
  10. ^ Halo Legends, Origins
  11. ^ a b c Official Halo Wars Community Site: Timeline
  12. ^ Halo: The Fall of Reach, page ??
  13. ^ a b c Halo 2, campaign level Cairo Station
  14. ^ a b c Halo 2, campaign level Outskirts
  15. ^ a b Halo 2, campaign level Metropolis
  16. ^ a b c Halo 3: ODST
  17. ^ Halo: Ghosts of Onyx, page ??
  18. ^ Halo 3, campaign level Sierra 117
  19. ^ Halo 3, campaign level Crow's Nest
  20. ^ Halo 3, campaign level Tsavo Highway
  21. ^ Halo 3, campaign level The Storm
  22. ^ Halo 3, campaign level Floodgate
  23. ^ Spartan Ops, S1E1 - Departure
  24. ^ Bungie.net: An Affinity for Art
  25. ^ Halo 2, multiplayer map Zanzibar
  26. ^ Halo 3, multiplayer map Last Resort
  27. ^ Halo 2, multiplayer map Foundation
  28. ^ Halo 3, multiplayer map Blackout